Friday, September 9, 2011

Kyrgyzstan: Strange Days on the Eurasian Frontier (2010)

Kyrgyzstan as a Geopolitical Pivot in Great Power Rivalries: Washington, Moscow, Beijing and the Geopolitics of Central Asia
[45] Edouardo Real, Zbigniew Brzezinski: Defeated by his Success, January 30, 2008, accessed in
[46] Ahmed Rashid, The Taliban: Exporting Extremism, Foreign Affairs, New York Council on Foreign Relations, November-December 1999, p.31.
[47] Ibid.
[48] Lorenzo Vidino, How Chechnya Became a Breeding Ground for Terror, Middle East Quarterly, Summer 2005, Philadelphia, accessed in for-terror
[49] Michel Chossudovsky, Who is Osama bin Laden?, Global Research, September 12, 2001, accessed in
[50] Heritage Foundation, Washington D.C., 2006 Annual Report lists defense giants McDonnell Douglas and Boeing as well as oil companies Chevron and ExxonMobil as funders. See Source Watch: Heritage Foundation, accessed in
[51] Ariel Cohen, Radical Islam and US Interests in Central Asia, Testimony before the Subcommittee on Middle East and Central Asia, Committee on International Relations, US House of Representatives, October 29, 2003, accessed in in-Central-Asia
[52] Ibid.
[53] Ibid.
[54] General David H. Petraeus, US Army, Commander US Central Command, Statement to Senate Armed Services Committee on the Afghanistan-Pakistan Strategic Posture Review and the Posture of US Central Command, April 1, 2009, accessed in
[55] Ibid.
[56] Halford J. Mackinder, The Geographical Pivot of History, London, Royal Geographic Society, 1904. Mackinder’s Pivot Area was what later essentially became the Soviet Union, including Central Asia, plus Afghanistan.
[57] US Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Minority Staff Report for Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations Hearing on Private Banking and Money Laundering: A Case Study of Opportunities and Vulnerabilities; (2) Asif Ali Zardari Case History, Washington D.C., November 9, 1999, accessed in
[58] Helene Cooper, Mark Mazzetti, U.N. Envoy’s Ties to Pakistani Are Questioned, The New York Times, August 25, 2008.
[59] Syed Ifran Raza, Minister criticized over anti-terror authority, Dawn, Karachi, 12 December, 2009, accessed in
[60] Dawn, Zardari calls for counter-terror strategy, Karachi, March 16, 2010, accessed in
[61] Thomas M. Sanderson and Andrew C. Kutchins, The Northern Distribution Network and Afghanistan: Geopolitical Challenges and Opportunities, Washington, CSIS, A Report of the CSIS Transnational Threats Project and the Russia and Eurasia Program, January 2010, accessed in
[62] Dawn, US not to use Uzbek base, says Holbrooke, Astana, 21 February 2010, accessed in
[63] Richard Boucher, Re-designation of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan as a Foreign Terrorist Organization, Washington D.C., September 25, 2002, United States Department of State.
[64] Wayne Madsen, quoted in Peter Chamberlain, America’s ‘Islamists’ Go Where Oilmen Fear to Tread, News Central Asia, March 24, 2010, accessed in
[65] Ibid.
[66] Mark Thompson, Moving Troops to Afghanistan Harder Than Getting Them, Time, New York, October 14, 2009, accessed in,8599,1930097,00.html.
[67] Frank E. Kitson, Low Intensity Operations: Subversion, Insurgency and Peacekeeping, London, 1971, Faber and Faber.
[68] C.M. Olsson and E.P. Guittet, Counter Insurgency, Low Intensity Conflict and Peace Operations: A Genealogy of the Transformations of Warfare, March 5, 2005 paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, available from
[69] Grant T. Hammond, Low-intensity Conflict: War by another name, London, Small Wars and Insurgencies, Vol.1, Issue 3, December 1990, pp. 226-238.
[70] Jon Boone, US pours millions into anti-Taliban militias in Afghanistan, November 22, 2009, The Guardian, London.
[71] Jeremy Kuzmarov, American Police Training and Political Violence: From the Philippines Conquest to the Killing Fields of Afghanistan and Iraq, The Asia-Pacific Journal, 11-1-10, March 15, 2010.
[72] Ibid.
[73] Ibid.
[74] Ibid.
[75] Ibid.
[76] Rahim Faiez, US: Insurgents attack Bagram Air Field, Associated Press, May 19, 2010.
[77] Mark Mazzetti, US Is Still Using Private Spy Ring, Despite Doubts, The New York Times, May 15, 2010.
[78] Ibid.
[79] Ibid.
[80] Central Asia News, Kyrgyz Defense Ministry: The training center in Batken is not oriented against third countries,, March 18, 2010, accessed in
[81] Ibid.
[82] Zbigniew Brzezinski, The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy And Its Geostrategic Imperatives, New York, Basic Books, 1998, pp. 194-198.
[83] Ibid.
[84] Cornelius Graubner, Implications of the Northern Distribution Network in Central Asia, Central Asia-Caucasus Institute, Johns Hopkins University, September 1, 2009, accessed in
[85] Bill Marmon, New Supply ‘Front’ for Afghan War Runs Across Russia, Georgia and the ‘Stans, March 21, 2010, accessed in
[86] Ibid.
[87] Ibid.
[88] Peter Chamberlain, America’s ‘Islamists’ Go Where Oilmen Fear to Tread, News Central Asia, March 24, 2010,
accessed in
[89] Wayne Madsen, CIA Involvement With Drug Trade Resulted In Death Threats Against US
Senator, accessed in
[90] Ralf Mutschke, Threat Posed by the Convergence of Organized Crime, Drug Trafficking, and Terrorism, Hearing before the Subcommittee on Crime of the Committee on the Judiciary, US House of Representatives, 106th Congress, 2nd Session, US Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., December 13, 2000.
[91] Peter Chamberlain, op. cit.
[92] Ibid.
[93] Richard Holbrooke, quoted in US to shift approach to Afghanistan drug trade
The focus will move from opium eradication to fighting trafficking and promoting alternate crops, US envoy Richard Holbrooke says, Associated Press, June 28, 2009, accessed in
[94] Dexter Filkins, Mark Mazetti and James Risen, Brother of Afghan Leader Said to be Paid by CIA, The New York Times, October 27, 2009.
[95] Jeremy Kuzmarov, op. cit.
[96] Ibid.
[97] United Nations office on Drugs and Crime, World Drug Report: 2009, accessed in
[98] Ibid.
[99] Ibid.
[100] Alfred W. McCoy, op. cit.
[101] Craig Murray, Britain is protecting the biggest heroin crop of all time, London, Daily Mail, July 21, 2007, accessed in
[102] Ibid.
[103] Andrei Fedyashin, Russia and NATO divided over Afghan opium, March 25, 2010, RIA Novosti.
[104] RIA Novosti, Russian official mocks NATO concern for Afghan poppy growers, Moscow, March 25, 2010, accessed in
[105] Ibid.
[106] Ibid.
[107] Jeremy R. Hammond, Ex-ISI Chief Says Purpose of New Afghan Intelligence Agency RAMA Is ‘to destabilize Pakistan,’ Foreign Policy Journal, August 12, 2009, accessed in
[108] Ibid.
[109] Ibid.
[110] Various off-record conversations with the author over the course of April and May 2010.
[111] Ibid.
[112] Craig Murray, On Missiles and Missile Defense, September 23, 2009, accessed in
[113] Dexter Filkins, Mark Mazzetti, James Risen, Brother of Afghan Leader Said to Be Paid by CIA, The New York Times, October 27, 2009.
[114] Craig Murray, US Supported Afghan Government Warlords Control World Heroin Trade, August 13, 2009, accessed in
[115] Craig Murray, Britain is protecting the biggest heroin crop of all time, London, Daily Mail, July 21, 2007, accessed in